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Referencing with Harvard: Welcome

How to ...


Why Reference?

Referencing is about maintaining academic integrity.  It is used

  • To show that you understand the topic and can explain in your own thoughts.
  • To demonstrate that you have read widely and deeply.
  • To enable the reader to locate where you obtained each quote or idea.
  • To avoid plagiarism and uphold academic honesty. 

About the Harvard Style of Referencing

The Harvard (author-date) system is made up of two parts:

  • an in-text citation and a
  • bibliography at the end of the document.

In a piece of research, ideas taken from other people are indicated by placing the author's surname and the date of publication in rounded brackets (e.g. Apple 2013). The bibliography at the end of the document then lists the references in alphabetical order by authors' surnames.

This guide provides instructions and over 130 examples using Harvard referencing.  To find a variety of types of sources, you can use the A-Z on each page or the full page listing which includes links to all examples.

Important:  There are many variations of the Harvard style. Be sure to match the Harvard style that best fits the style recommended in your course handbook. Always ask your tutor which referencing style s/he wants you to use in your academic work.

Tip! Be consistent in the referencing style you use. 

More referencing information can be found in the following LibGuides:

You can also find guides for the following referencing tools:

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Some Harvard referencing examples in this guide have been adapted from Pears and Shields (2013).

Other examples in this guide have been adapted from online support produced by Sue Stevens and Alex Jubb at the University of Birmingham. This content is available under a CC-BY-NC-SA license.