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Referencing with Harvard: 4 Steps

Steps to Referencing

At the time of reading a source, record all of the bibliographic information (descriptive elements) necessary to create a citation. You can either use referencing software or record manually. It is vital to be accurate and clear at this stage to save time later on. 

The you should record:

  • Author(s)/editor(s).
  • Title.
  • Edition (1st, 2nd, reprint ed. revised ed. etc.).
  • Page numbers for direct quotations.
  • Place of publication.
  • Publisher.
  • Date of publication.
  • Web address if online resources and Date Accessed.

Tip! For large research projects where it is necessary to maintain a central library of references, we recommend Endnote, Mendeley or Zotero.

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It’s important to keep track of sources you want to cite later. There are few different ways you can keep track of sources, including:

  • Using a referencing software (eg. Endnote, Mendeley, RefMe, or Zotero).
  • Keeping a word document listing all of the resources.
  • Print out any relevant articles being used for later.
  • Keeping a system of filing cards for each item you use.

We suggest you use a referencing software. It can save you a lot of time when writing your paper and can make it easier to keep track of large numbers of resources. We provide LibGuides on EndnoteMendeley and Zotero as well as regular training sessions

Construct your citations within the text of your essay using the appropriate guidelines for the citation style you are using.Icon of pages

The styles most commonly used at the IOE are Harvard and APA.

Tip! Check your programme handbook to verify which citation style you are expected to use.

You are expected to use in-text citations and create a list of references at the end of your essay or paper.

Be sure to balance your use of direct quotations, paraphrasing and summarising.

For help in academic writing, please go to the Academic Writing Centre at the Institute or the Student Union Language + Writing Support Centre. 

Tip!  The difference between a reference list and bibliography is as follows:  a bibliography also provides a detailed list of references but it also includes readings you may have consulted and not cited.  It is therefore a larger group of works than a reference list. Sometimes this list will be annotated to tell the reader why the author considers the work worthy to be in the bibliography.  This is an annotated bibliography.