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Referencing with Harvard: Terms

More Referencing Help


More referencing information can be found in the following LibGuides:

You can also find guides for the following referencing tools:

Some Common Referencing Terms

A Bibliography is a list of documents consulted but not necessarily referred to in a specific essay or assignment. A bibliography can also be a comprehensive list of works on a specific subject, for example, The Bibliography of Bioethics. When researching a topic it is a good idea to prepare a bibliography for your own use, even if in your essay you need to cite only some of these items in a References list.

TipAlways check with your tutor about whether they require a reference list, a bibliography or both.

Citation or Referencing style is the method used to format your citations. Some commonly used formats are Harvard, MLA, Chicago, APA and Vancouver.

Descriptive elements are the necessary parts of a reference. A few examples of these elements are: author, title, edition, date of publication, internet address, etc.

Digital Object Identifier (doi) is a numbered tag used to identify digital sources such as journal articles.

Electronic is a generic term used to describe documents available from the internet or from databases or published in a digitised format.

edn. is the abbreviation in the Harvard style for 'edition' to avoid confusion with 'ed.' for 'editor' and or 'eds.' for 'editors'.

et al. is from the Latin, et alia, meaning 'and others' used in the Harvard author-date system for works having more than three authors.

In-text citations are a method of signaling to the reader that the words or ideas quoted or referred to are not your own. The method for acknowledging the source document will vary according to the citation style you are using.

Peer-review is a process used to check the accuracy and author of a publication. Used in academic publishing, the author's draft is sent by an editor (usually anonymously) to experts in the field of study who suggest amendments. This is seen as a type of quality control and is distinctly different from traditional publishing or web publishing where anyone can publish.

References are an accurate and complete description of a document. A document may be a book, a journal article, a video, an email, or an internet site, etc. The reference should include sufficient descriptive elements to identify and locate the document.

sic. is from the Latin meaning 'so, thus'. It is used after a quoted or copied word that has been written exactly as the original. The term usually highlights a misspelling.

A References List is a list of all the documents you have referred to in your assignment or project. It is usually included at the end of your work. It may be arranged alphabetically or numerically and formatted according to one of the citation styles.
Tip! Always check with your tutor about whether they require a reference list, a bibliography or both.